Adjuvant Dendritic Cell-immunotherapy Plus Temozolomide in Glioblastoma Patients

Study Purpose

In this phase I/II trial, the primary objective is to determine overall and progression-free survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma when autologous Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) messenger (m)RNA-loaded dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is added to adjuvant temozolomide maintenance treatment following (sub)total resection and temozolomide-based chemoradiation.

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Eligible Ages 18 Years and Over
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • - Newly diagnosed, histologically verified glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) - Aged ≥ 18 years.
  • - Total or subtotal resection: - Total resection: macroscopic complete resection as assessed by the neurosurgeon and absence of any residual contrast-enhancing mass on post-operative (≤ 72h) brain MRI.
  • - Subtotal resection: macroscopic complete resection as assessed by the neurosurgeon, but with residual contrast-enhancement ≤ 2 cm³ on post-operative (≤ 72h) brain MRI.
  • - Signed informed consent.
  • - Willing and able to comply with the protocol as judged by the Investigator.
  • - Estimated to start with chemoradiation ≥ 28 days and ≤ 49 days following surgical resection.
  • - Fit to undergo: leukapheresis, chemoradiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
  • - No corticosteroid treatment ≤ 1 week before apheresis.
  • - WHO performance status ≤ 2.
  • - Life expectancy ≥ 3 months as estimated by the Investigator.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • - History of another malignancy, except for adequately controlled basal cell skin carcinoma, squamous skin carcinoma, or carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix or unless the investigator rationalizes otherwise.
  • - Prior radiation or chemotherapy.
  • - Any pre-existing contraindication for temozolomide treatment.
  • - Any pre-existing contraindication for contrast-enhanced brain MRI.
  • - Pregnant or breast-feeding.
  • - Documented immune deficiency or systemic immune-suppressive treatment.
  • - Known positive viral serology for HIV, HBV, HCV, or syphilis.
- Any other condition, either physical or psychological, or reasonable suspicion thereof on clinical or special investigation, which contraindicates the use of the vaccine, or may negatively affect patient compliance, or may place the patient at higher risk of potential treatment complications

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


Phase 1: Studies that emphasize safety and how the drug is metabolized and excreted in humans.

Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Phase 1/Phase 2
Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

University Hospital, Antwerp
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Zwi N Berneman, MD, PhDPol Specenier, MD, PhDYannick Willemen, MDEvelien LJ Smits, MSc, PhDBarbara Stein, MScEva Lion, MSc, PhD
Principal Investigator Affiliation Antwerp University Hospital, Division of Hematology and Center for Cell Therapy and Regenerative MedicineAntwerp University Hospital (UZA), Division of OncologyUniversity of Antwerp, Laboratory of Experimental HematologyUniversity of Antwerp, Laboratory of Experimental HematologyAntwerp University Hospital, Division of HematologyUniversity of Antwerp, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Recruiting
Countries Belgium

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Glioblastoma Multiforme of Brain
Additional Details

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a microscopically infiltrative disease, is the most common malignant brain tumor worldwide. Despite optimized standard of care treatment median survival and prognosis remain poor with a median survival of only 15% and five year survival after diagnosis of 5%. In this single arm single centre phase I/II trial the investigators will determine the overall and progression free survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM when autologous WT1 mRNA loaded dendritic cell vaccination is added to standard of care treatment. During recruitment, the investigators will include 20 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically verified glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) who have received a total or subtotal resection of the tumor. Patients who underwent prior radiation or chemotherapy or with a history of other malignancy will be excluded. In addition to standard of care consisting of adjuvant chemoradiation with temozolomide and temozolomide maintenance patients will receive an intradermal vaccination with autologous WT1 mRNA-loaded dendritic cells commencing 1 week after radiotherapy. The dendritic cell therapy product will be generated and administered in the Antwerp University Hospital, more specifically the Center for Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine (CCRG) and the Division of Hematology, both headed by Prof. Zwi Berneman. Recruitment began in December 2015 and is intended to continue until the end of 2020 or when 20 patients are enrolled. After a follow-up period (until 90 days after final DC vaccine administration or 24 months after apheresis , whichever occurs later), overall and progression free survival analysis will be performed and this will be compared with the published data of standard of care treatment without vaccination. In addition the investigators will look for feasibility, incidence of adverse events and immunogenicity.

Arms & Interventions


Experimental: Single Arm

Dendritic cell vaccine plus temozolomide chemotherapy


Biological: - Dendritic cell vaccine plus temozolomide chemotherapy

When eligible after total or subtotal resection (as assessed by neurosurgeon and post-operative brain MRI): Leukocyte apheresis (before chemoradiation): for DC vaccine production Chemoradiation (standard treatment: initiated as soon as the patient's hematological blood values are adequate after apheresis): 2 Gy once daily 5 days/week for 6 weeks with 75 mg/m² temozolomide daily from the first until the last day of radiotherapy (no longer than 49 days in total) Induction immunotherapy: intradermal vaccination with autologous WT1 mRNA-loaded DCs weekly (+/-1 day) for 3 weeks, starting ≥ 1 week after radiotherapy Chemo-immunotherapy: 150-200 mg/m²/d temozolomide days 1-5 every 28 days +/- 2 days (max. 12 months) starting ≥3 days after the third vaccine of the induction immunotherapy + DC vaccination on day 21±3 days of every 28-day cycle

Contact a Trial Team

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International Sites

Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Antwerp, Belgium




Antwerp University Hospital

Edegem, Antwerp, 2650

Site Contact

Zwi N Berneman, MD, PhD

0032 3 821 39 15

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